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According to this account, the book was originally called Al Azif , an Arabic word that Lovecraft defined as "that nocturnal sound made by insects supposed to be the howling of demons", drawing on a footnote by Samuel Henley in Henley's translation of " Vathek ".
He is described as being from Sanaa in Yemen , and as visiting the ruins of Babylon , the "subterranean secrets" of Memphis and the Empty Quarter of Arabia where he discovered the " nameless city " below Irem.
In his last years, he lived in Damascus , where he wrote Al Azif before his sudden and mysterious death in In subsequent years, Lovecraft wrote, the Azif "gained considerable, though surreptitious circulation amongst the philosophers of the age.
This version "impelled certain experimenters to terrible attempts" before being "suppressed and burnt" in by Patriarch Michael a historical figure who died in After this attempted suppression, the work was "only heard of furtively" until it was translated from Greek into Latin by Olaus Wormius.
Lovecraft gives the date of this edition as , though the real-life Danish scholar Olaus Wormius lived from to Both the Latin and Greek text, the "History" relates, were banned by Pope Gregory IX in , though Latin editions were apparently published in 15th century Germany and 17th century Spain.
A Greek edition was printed in Italy in the first half of the 16th century. The Elizabethan magician John Dee c. According to Lovecraft, the Arabic version of Al Azif had already disappeared by the time the Greek version was banned in , though he cites "a vague account of a secret copy appearing in San Francisco during the current [20th] century" that "later perished in fire".
The Greek version, he writes, has not been reported "since the burning of a certain Salem man's library in " an apparent reference to the Salem witch trials.
According to "History of the Necronomicon " the very act of studying the text is inherently dangerous, as those who attempt to master its arcane knowledge generally meet terrible ends.
However, despite frequent references to the book, Lovecraft was very sparing of details about its appearance and contents. He once wrote that "if anyone were to try to write the Necronomicon , it would disappoint all those who have shuddered at cryptic references to it.
In "The Nameless City" , a rhyming couplet that appears at two points in the story is ascribed to Abdul Alhazred:.
The same couplet appears in " The Call of Cthulhu " , where it is identified as a quotation from the Necronomicon.
This "much-discussed" couplet, as Lovecraft calls it in the latter story, has also been quoted in works by other authors, including Brian Lumley 's The Burrowers Beneath , which adds a long paragraph preceding the couplet.
In his story " History of the Necronomicon ", Lovecraft states that it is rumored that artist R. Pickman from his story Pickman's Model owned a Greek translation of the text, but it vanished along with the artist in early The Necronomicon is undoubtedly a substantial text, as indicated by its description in The Dunwich Horror In the story, Wilbur Whateley visits Miskatonic University 's library to consult the "unabridged" version of the Necronomicon for a spell that would have appeared on the st page of his own inherited, but defective, Dee edition.
The Necronomicon passage in question states:. Nor is it to be thought Not in the spaces we know, but between them, they walk serene and primal, undimensioned and to us unseen.
Yog-Sothoth knows the gate. Yog-Sothoth is the gate. Yog-Sothoth is the key and guardian of the gate.
Past, present, future, all are one in Yog-Sothoth. He knows where the Old Ones broke through of old, and where They shall break through again.
He knows where They had trod earth's fields, and where They still tread them, and why no one can behold Them as They tread.
By Their smell can men sometimes know Them near, but of Their semblance can no man know, saving only in the features of those They have begotten on mankind; and of those are there many sorts, differing in likeness from man's truest eidolon to that shape without sight or substance which is Them.
They walk unseen and foul in lonely places where the Words have been spoken and the Rites howled through at their Seasons. The wind gibbers with Their voices, and the earth mutters with Their consciousness.
They bend the forest and crush the city, yet may not forest or city behold the hand that smites. Kadath in the cold waste hath known Them, and what man knows Kadath?
The ice desert of the South and the sunken isles of Ocean hold stones whereon Their seal is engraver, but who hath seen the deep frozen city or the sealed tower long garlanded with seaweed and barnacles?
Great Cthulhu is Their cousin, yet can he spy Them only dimly. As a foulness shall ye know Them. Their hand is at your throats, yet ye see Them not; and Their habitation is even one with your guarded threshold.
Yog-Sothoth is the key to the gate, whereby the spheres meet. Man rules now where They ruled once; They shall soon rule where man rules now.
After summer is winter, after winter summer. He is possibly more taken aback than anyone about the runaway success of his book and hypothesises over the phone from the US that it's because "people more and more long to hold on to serious things, and old things".
His book is a paradoxical hit because it's not as if Latin is enjoying a revival - instead, it seems inexorably on the decline.
Now, as Mount points out, you don't need to have done Latin at school let alone Greek to study it at Oxford, by tradition the brainiest place in the country, if not the world, to read classics.
Indeed, his book is evidence of Latin's death throes: Amo, Amas, Amat, however, is about pleasure as much as anything else. What Mount purports to give you is Latin without the pain indeed, he suggests buying Kennedy if you want a "proper" hair-shirt grammar book to consult.
He likens his undertaking to JG Links's marvellous book Venice for Pleasure - a fabulously old-fartish tourist guide that suggests tackling the city in the most sybaritic way possible, with many a stop for coffee and ice cream and no guilt if you can't face millions of Tintorettos in the Accademia.
In Mount's book, the equivalent of the millions of Tintorettos are the verb tables and the explanations of how to form various tricky Latin constructions.
These tables, it must be said, go on for ever - even the enthusiastic Mount apologetically describes the adjectives as "pretty relentless".
According to temperament, they will provide for former school or university Latinists either an inspiring reminder of how much knowledge youthful heads once held; or a depressing memento mori 3 , inviting one to contemplate faulty memory, the passage of time, and the destruction of precious brain cells.
Unless you are a seriously persistent student, it is much easier to skip all that, settle in a notional Venetian cafe, and read the surrounding stuff, which meanders from reminiscences about Mount's Latin masters at school, to a funny-and-useful guide to Latin phrases in regular English use, concluding with a call to arms for proper classics teaching in schools.
He also makes reference to a modern equivalent, year-old Miss Howard-Johnston, who, if he hasn't made her up for effect, works at a comprehensive in the Elephant and Castle in London, "has a fetching line in scrunched-up hair and boho jangly jewellery" and "teaches Latin by rapping in the language".
Her pupils call her "Miss Ho-Jo". I speak to a more realistic version of the modern Latin schoolteacher, Rebecca Leek, who teaches part-time "in a rather nice girls' private school in Letchworth Garden City".
In year nine the girls can opt for Latin lessons in their lunch hour and by year 10 they can choose to do it for GCSE.
She has 14 in her current GCSE group - not a bad number at all. Even for these girls, there is a hint of nostalgia in the exercise.
There's a cachet attached to it, a sort of romanticism," she says. Mount's starting point in Amo, Amas, Amat is that Latin gives its invoker a touch of class.
There are a few main types of participles: Latin sometimes uses prepositions, depending on the type of prepositional phrase being used.
Prepositions can take two cases for their object: A regular verb in Latin belongs to one of four main conjugations. A conjugation is "a class of verbs with similar inflected forms.
Irregular verbs may not follow the types or may be marked in a different way. The "endings" presented above are not the suffixed infinitive markers.
The first letter in each case is the last of the stem so the conjugations are also called a-conjugation, e-conjugation and i-conjugation.
Third-conjugation stems end in a consonant: Further, there is a subset of the third conjugation, the i-stems, which behave somewhat like the fourth conjugation, as they are both i-stems, one short and the other long.
There are six general tenses in Latin present, imperfect, future, perfect, pluperfect and future perfect , three moods indicative, imperative and subjunctive, in addition to the infinitive , participle , gerund , gerundive and supine , three persons first, second and third , two numbers singular and plural , two voices active and passive and three aspects perfective, imperfective , and stative.
Verbs are described by four principal parts:. There are six tenses in the Latin language. These are divided into two tense systems: Each tense has a set of endings corresponding to the person and number referred to.
Subject nominative pronouns are generally omitted for the first I, we and second you persons unless emphasis on the subject is desired.
The table below displays the common inflected endings for the indicative mood in the active voice in all six tenses.
For the future tense, the first listed endings are for the first and second conjugations, and the second listed endings are for the third and fourth conjugations:.
The future perfect endings are identical to the future forms of sum with the exception of erint and that the pluperfect endings are identical to the imperfect forms of sum.
Some Latin verbs are deponent , causing their forms to be in the passive voice but retain an active meaning: As Latin is an Italic language, most of its vocabulary is likewise Italic, ultimately from the ancestral Proto-Indo-European language.
However, because of close cultural interaction, the Romans not only adapted the Etruscan alphabet to form the Latin alphabet but also borrowed some Etruscan words into their language, including persona "mask" and histrio "actor".
After the Fall of Tarentum BC , the Romans began hellenizing, or adopting features of Greek culture, including the borrowing of Greek words, such as camera vaulted roof , sumbolum symbol , and balineum bath.
Because of the Roman Empire's expansion and subsequent trade with outlying European tribes, the Romans borrowed some northern and central European words, such as beber beaver , of Germanic origin, and bracae breeches , of Celtic origin.
The dialects of Latin evolved into different Romance languages. During and after the adoption of Christianity into Roman society, Christian vocabulary became a part of the language, either from Greek or Hebrew borrowings or as Latin neologisms.
Over the ages, Latin-speaking populations produced new adjectives, nouns, and verbs by affixing or compounding meaningful segments.
Often, the concatenation changed the part of speech, and nouns were produced from verb segments or verbs from nouns and adjectives.
The phrases are mentioned with accents to show where stress is placed. In ancient times, numbers in Latin were written only with letters.
Today, the numbers can be written with the Arabic numbers as well as with Roman numerals. The numbers 1, 2 and 3 and every whole hundred from to are declined as nouns and adjectives, with some differences.
Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres, quarum unam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, tertiam qui ipsorum lingua Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur. Hi omnes lingua, institutis, legibus inter se differunt.
Horum omnium fortissimi sunt Belgae, propterea quod a cultu atque humanitate provinciae longissime absunt, minimeque ad eos mercatores saepe commeant atque ea quae ad effeminandos animos pertinent important, proximique sunt Germanis, qui trans Rhenum incolunt, quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt.
Qua de causa Helvetii quoque reliquos Gallos virtute praecedunt, quod fere cotidianis proeliis cum Germanis contendunt, cum aut suis finibus eos prohibent aut ipsi in eorum finibus bellum gerunt.
Eorum una pars, quam Gallos obtinere dictum est, initium capit a flumine Rhodano, continetur Garumna flumine, Oceano, finibus Belgarum; attingit etiam ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum; vergit ad septentriones.
Belgae ab extremis Galliae finibus oriuntur; pertinent ad inferiorem partem fluminis Rheni; spectant in septentrionem et orientem solem.
Aquitania a Garumna flumine ad Pyrenaeos montes et eam partem Oceani quae est ad Hispaniam pertinet; spectat inter occasum solis et septentriones.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Latin disambiguation. Latin inscription, in the Colosseum of Rome , Italy. Pontifical Academy for Latin.
Map indicating the greatest extent of the Roman Empire c. Many languages other than Latin were spoken within the empire. Range of the Romance languages, the modern descendants of Latin, in Europe.
Vulgar Latin and Late Latin. Latin spelling and pronunciation. Latin grammar and Latin syntax. Latin portal Ancient Rome portal Language portal Catholicism portal.
A companion to Latin studies. University of Chicago Press. With Bibliography and Index. In Italy, all alphabets were originally written from right to left; the oldest Latin inscription, which appears on the lapis niger of the seventh century BC, is in bustrophedon, but all other early Latin inscriptions run from right to left.
Unraveling the Mystery of the Alphabet from A to Z. From Latin to modern French with especial consideration of Anglo-Norman; phonology and morphology.
Publications of the University of Manchester, no. Source book of the history of education for the Greek and Roman period. The story of Latin and the Romance languages 1st ed.
Documents in medieval Latin. University of Michigan Press. Retrieved 2 March Retrieved 16 September Retrieved 22 May ".
Retrieved 9 August Nuntii Latini mensis lunii Lateinischer Monats rückblick" in Latin. Archived from the original on 18 June Retrieved 16 July Retrieved 29 January Retrieved 17 July Ordered Profusion; studies in dictionaries and the English lexicon.
The Times Literary Supplement. Archived from the original on 14 January Retrieved 20 December No, you learn Latin because of what was written in it — and because of the sexual side of life direct access that Latin gives you to a literary tradition that lies at the very heart not just at the root of Western culture.
Retrieved 15 November I wish a traveler in England could travel without knowing any other language than Latin! New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin.
Retrieved 12 March Webster's II new college dictionary. Wheelock's Latin 7th ed. Retrieved 20 May Allen, William Sidney The foundations of Latin.
Buck, Carl Darling A grammar of Oscan and Umbrian, with a collection of inscriptions and a glossary. Clark, Victor Selden Studies in the Latin of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.
The New Era Printing Company. Diringer, David . Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Private Ltd. Pennsylvania State University Press. A History of the French Language.
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